The Parliament of Uganda derives its mandate and functions from the 1995 Constitution, the Laws of Uganda and its own Rules of Procedure. The Constitution contains articles which provide for the establishment, composition and functions of the Parliament of Uganda and empowers Parliament "to make laws on any matter for the peace, order, development and good governance of Uganda", and "to protect the Constitution and promote democratic governance in Uganda".

The current parliament (11th Parliament 2021-2026) is comprised of 556 members in total: these include 353 Constituency Representatives, 146 District Woman Representatives, 10 Uganda Peoples' Defence Forces Representatives, 5 Representatives of the Youth, 5 Representatives of Persons with Disabilities, 5 Representatives of Workers, 5 Representatives of the Elderly and 27 Ex Officio Members.

Uganda’s Parliament conducts its business in both Committees and the Plenary. Parliament sets up Sectoral Committees (at the beginning of each session), Standing Committees (at the beginning of a new term of Parliament, and again after two and half years) and other Committees such as Select Committees and Ad hoc Committees to help in handling different matters before it.